Recover From Stuttering – Don’t Take Fluency For Granted

Many of you who stutter and have undertaken an intensive speech therapy program know the feeling of elation you have when you've finished. Four or five days of solid stuttering therapy leads to, for the majority of people, a major improvement in fluency. Many people simply want to just 'get out there' and use their newly-found control, their wonderful new fluency. Their confidence is brimming, self-esteem has skyrocketed and the thought of stuttering is no longer there. It's an ecstatic feeling, that feeling of being in control, I know, I've been there.

If people only knew at that time how close they were to failure, they may pull back just a little.

I do not want to be a party pooper, a wet blanket, but it must be said. Speaking from experience, and I am giving out a warning here! – Do not leave an intensive stuttering therapy course without reigning in that 'can not wait to get out there and speak feeling' I have just described. If you want that beautiful exhilarating feeling of fluency control to continue, then think, think about what you have to do to ensure you keep that control. If you do not use your new technique, you may ride along on what we call carry-over fluency for a time, but, from experience, it's mostly short-lived.

Ensure your fluency lasts. Ensure your technique is in place every time you open your mouth. Practice, practice, practice! You will extend your control if you apply this common sense rule. Your new technique is your solid foundation for fluency success, make sure it's always there and do not fly off at the mouth, just because you happen to feel fluent. Apply your thoughts and aim to extend the feeling of control that you have made so hard for, and use technique. Think about using technique even during a fluent conversation. The act of thinking about technique while out and about acts as real reinforcement to that technique and to fluency within your mind.

I know I am harping, nagging and repeating myself ad nauseum. It's worth stressing because, because without technique, if it's not there when you open your mouth, it's a very slippery slope back to lack of control. No one wants to go back there, especially when you have tasted the wonderful feeling of being in control.

Be boss over your mind and do not take fluency for granted. Join me on this quest for speech fluency.

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Diagnosing Dyslexia

What sets a human apart from animals is we can think using language as well as with pictures.

The two ways humans think are:

1. Verbally using the sounds of words. This is linear thinking. Mental sentences are composed one at a time. About 2.5 words a second.

2. Picture Thinking – using mental pictures of concepts or ideas. This is seeing a picture grow as more concepts are added. It is much faster than verbal thought. It happens so fast that the thinker is usually unaware of doing it. It is below conscious awareness.

Everyone uses both thinking styles but one becomes the primary style used. People with dyslexia tend to have picture thinking as their dominant thinking style.

Dyslexia is formed between the ages of three and thirteen and a dyslexic must be primarily a picture thinker. When a person is thinking in pictures there is no internal dialogue and so they do not 'hear' what they are reading. The difficulty with this is that some aspects of language are not easy to visualize. It is impossible for a picture thinker to think with words meaning meaning can not be pictured.

Dyslexic symptoms are the confusion that is caused when thinking can not be pictured. Picture making is stopped, confusion occurs and the thinker often can not push through the confusion.

A person with dyslexia does not have brain or nerve damage or a physical disability that interferes with the mental processes associated with reading. Instead they have a unique way of thinking.

What every dyslexic person needs is instruction on how to control the disorientations that occurs when trigger words are encountered.

There are programs that teach dyslexics a technique for turning off disorientations. The training enables them to manage the confusion that happens when a word can not be pictured. It is about creating personal pictures that represent the meaning of the trigger words that they have been unable to picture.

More is known about dyslexia today and the unique gifts of dyslexia can be developed with the correct understanding and encouragement by people who understand the condition.

For me the knowledge of the two thinking styles available to human beings helps explain why many people have trouble with reading, writing and spelling. I certainly have a realization that dyslexia is complex and an understanding of why so many successful entrepreneurs say they suffer from dyslexia.

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Language Development – Stimulating Your Baby’s Language Skills

Babies do not talk. You do not have to worry about speech for the first year or two, right? WRONG!

No, babies are not born with any language skills and it will be about a year before the baby actually says his first word, but the language learning process begins at birth. The foundations in speech and language you give your child from his or her first weeks will affect his development for years to come. Babies are constantly listening, watching and learning to interact with others. At three to six months, they begin to experiment with sounds and back-and-forth interaction with their caretakers in preparation for the real language that will be emerging at around a year.

Here are a few things a parent can do to encourage speech and language development:

– Interact with your baby a lot. Talk, coo, and babble at him. Make happy or silly faces at him and watch how he reacts.

– When your baby starts to coo or babble, imitate him. See if you can get a “conversation” going by taking turns making sounds.

– Any talking to your baby or toddler is great, but the best way to encourage language growth is to make your sentences just a little more complicated than his are. If baby points and says, “ball,” you might say, “Yes, big ball,” that will give him a speech model to grow towards. When you speak in very long, adult sentences, it is just too much for him to take in.

When your child wants something, model the appropriate words to him. “Juice, please.” “Want up?” If he is able, require him to say the words. Do not respond to grunts and pointing if your child is capable of more. Read, read, read to him! Reading the book as it is written is great, but some of the time, you might just talk about the pictures, or name the pictures and see if he can imitate you. As he grows older, talk about the story and pictures with him.

Recite nursery rhymes and sing with your child. You can even make little rhymes and songs about your daily activities-buckling up in the car, changing a diaper, and so on. The rhyming and repetition is great language stimulation and fun for the child as well. Play pat-a-cake and peek-a-boo games with your child. Again-rhymes, language, and playing all in one!

My children always enjoyed listening to music during naptime or in the car – lullabies, nursery rhymes, and other child-specific listening fare. Most of all, enjoy your child! Spend time with him or her, using language whenever appropriate and your child is likely to reach his full potential!

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Dyslexia – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

A child is the greatest dream of a newlywed couple. From the day of his birth you would look into each stage of his growth and makes a note of all dates of importance like the day when his first milk teeth came or when he walked. But not all children are fortunately and some may grow with many disabilities. Dyslexia is a type of learning disability. A child affected with dyslexia will not be that much interested in his studies. This is actually a medical condition and not due to laziness of the child.

What is Dyslexia?

Dyslexia is the inability of a child to learn the same way as a normal child of his age would do. Those children affected with dyslexia will not be able to recognize words, understand spelling and will not be having decoding abilities. Even though those children affected with dyslexia have learning disabilities, they are more intelligent than a normal child.

Till now the researchers have not been able to come up with the exact causes of dyslexia. There are many causes that have been talked about. Most doctors say that dyslexia has been caused by ear and throat infections in the early childhood period. These infections should have lead to learning disability in a child. There are many among us who believe that dyslexia is due to certain hereditary factors. Most of the dyslexics have at least one parent who is suffering from dyslexia. There are many other people who have turned dyslexics due to learning disabilities such as ADHD and ADD.

How is it Diagnosed?

Diagnosing dyslexia is a very difficult task. This medical condition does not give you any symptoms which make you to understand the health situation that he is. We are able to diagnose a child with dyslexia only when he starts learning. In some schools there is an arrangement to check the children for health issues like dyslexia before taking admission into the school. The next best way to diagnose dyslexia is to study the family history. In most cases dyslexia are hereditary so if we know something about the family it would be much beneficial in finding out whether a child is suffering from learning disabilities like dyslexia.

The chances for a child to get affected with dyslexia are more if any one of his parents is having this medical condition.If you have a doubt in your mind that you are affected with dyslexia, then there are many methods which can be used to identify wherever you are suffering from learning disabilities. An online dyslexia test is the best option.

This is the simplest and easiest way in identifying a lifelong problem. If you find that you are suffering from dyslexia, then it should be known to your parents and friends at the earliest so that they can help in your treatment. The love and support that you may get from them is the best treatment for this medical condition.

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Speech Therapy – How to Teach the “L” Sound

Articulation delays are common in young children and several speech sounds can be particularly difficult for children to master. One sound that challenges many children is the / l / sound. / L / is a fairly easy sound to teach because it is produced near the front of the mouth, making it easy to “see.” Children should be able to produce / l / in conversation by age 5.

The most common error is substituting a / w / for / l /. Some children may use / y / for / l / or omit the / l / altogether.

The / l / sound is produced by placing the tongue tip behind the upper front teeth, against the gum ridge. The sides of the tongue are lowered in order to allow the voice to pass around the sides of the tongue.


  1. Model the correct placement of the tongue, using a mirror. Touch the gum ridge with a spoon or popsicle stick to demonstrate to the child where to make tongue contact.
  2. Practice raising and lowering the tongue tip to strengthen the tongue and develop awareness.
  3. Have the child open his mouth broadly, sustain an “ah” sound while raising his tongue tip to the / l / position.
  4. Practice / l / vowel babbling …. “Lalala, loolooloo, leelelee.” You may find that the / l / is easier to produce when combined with specific vowels. Practice the easier syllables first.
  5. Compare the tongue tip sounds. Have the child practice: “tee, dee, nee, lee,” etc.
  6. If the child substitutes / w / for / l /, gently spread the child's lips to discourage him from rounding them when producing / l /.

Once the child can produce an L sound consistently in isolation or in a short syllable, have him practice it at the beginning of words, such as light, lamp, let, and lip. Then start to practice / l / in the middle and ends of words and finally in sentences.

With consistent practice, you should soon see improvement in your child's speech!

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Lisp Speech Therapy – Do You Need It?

Lisp speech therapy can typically be carried out by a person on their own, but in some cases its much more in depth than that and the assistance of a true professional is necessary.

If you are having trouble with simple / s / sounds then you may be able to correct this with a little studying, and applying some practice time each day. The best way to do this is to start with just that sound alone. Isolate it from any other sounds, and practice for a set amount of time saying it. Listen to how other people say it. From here you can expand it into complete words such as, Soup, Sun, Sin. Then the goal is to start using it in complete sentences, preferably ones that have several S words.

If you have a deformity or medical condition of some sort, then you will probably want to seek the advice of a lisp therapist. The benefits of going this route is that these experts are aware of many methods that can deliver great results. Its also nice to have a coach to keep you on track and encouraged rather than discouraged.

You can correct your lisp on your own, but if for some reason you are already doing this and still finding it great challenging, then its probably best that you go the professional route now. There is no sense in beating yourself up or getting down on yourself if you can find a source of lisp speech therapy that will greatly improve your life.

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Lisp Therapy on Your Own

Having a lisp is actually more common than you might expect. Children can develop this at an early age, and even adults may find that it has taken over from their childhood, or they have recently developed this impediment.

There are 4 different types of lisps, and each one has a specific target problem which also can be corrected. Each form is caused by a specific way that air travels when producing the simple / s / sound.

Unfortunately the common lisps of Interdental, Lateral, Dentalised, and Palatal make producing clear S sounds difficult because they combat the natural way that air should travel when producing this sound.

Here are some tips on doing your own lisp therapy.

1. You will need to listen closely to how other people speak. Chances are that you already do this, because we hear conversations all the time, but really listen deeply into what's going on.

2. Spend 10 – 20 minutes every day working on improving your speech.

3. Start with the / s / sound. Practice just saying S's.

4. Most lisps are caused by improper air travel. The idea is to project air straight out the mouth as the S is produced. With Interdental, Lateral, Dentalized and Palatal the air does everything but that, and usually travels around the sides of the tongue. Focus on keeping it moving straight.

5. Be aware of where your tongue is. It should not be between both sets of teeth, pressing into the palate, or pressing too much into the upper row of teeth.

6. Keep track of how many times you actually say S correctly, and write it down for your own encouragement.

7. Once you can say the / s / sound 85% – 90% of the time correctly, move on to small words such as Still, Sand, Sad, Sun, etc.

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What is Dyslexia Screening?

Dyslexia screening is a task that is often used to see whether you could have dyslexia. If you get a positive result, this may not mean you do have dyslexia, just that there is a possibility you may.

If you are looking for a dyslexia screening test, then this indicates that you think you have a reading problem. However, you may wish for some sort of confirmation prior to taking the step of approaching a professional body for a more formal assessment.

A dyslexia screening test will require you to complete a few tasks to see what your particular problem is. These may involve rhyming tasks such as being asked to indicate what word you think rhymes with 'cat' from 'fit', 'sat' or 'car' for example. You may be asked to write down spoken words. It may also surprise you to find number tasks included to. This is due to a difficulty with numbers are often found along reading problems.

The word 'dyslexia' tends to be used to include the different types of reading deficits but within the term, you must understand that there are different types of reading problems. Such problems will manifest in the different ways in which you read.

In broad terms, it is possible you have more problems with words that do not follow the traditional spelling-to-sound rules, such as the word 'steak', however, you may be able to read made-up words such as' shulz '. Or, you may find that words such as 'steak' are easier, but will find it harder to process the made-up words. Why this discrepancy occurs is broadly debated within the academic world on various grounds, as are the different theories of how we read. A basic guide to reading theories will be the subject of another article as this may help people understand the deficit better.

It gets more complicated for adults as, having grown up with a reading deficit; they may have learnt to compensate for it in additional other ways.

Dyslexia screening tests can be found online and will also offer you useful advice. However, it is important to remember that the test estimate possible dyslexia, an individual assessment will be far more specific. Whoever the professional is who tests you, they will also be able to suggest tasks that may help you cope better.

An online dyslexia screening test is a good way to avoid feeling embarrassed before you have to! However, you should not feel that way, as the professionals you deal with are well aware of your feelings, the years you have spent trying to avoid reading out loud in public, the other difficulties you have had as well as the courage it takes to try and help yourself.

Be smart, and get those questions answered that have plagued you for years today.

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Getting Mixed Messages – Treating Auditory Dyslexia

Whenever I heard the term dyslexia I had a narrow definition and assumed it meant someone had a problem with reading, writing and spelling. Some people associate it with word and letter reversals and others with slow learners.

It seems almost everyone associates dyslexia with a learning disability of some description.

I now know more about dyslexia thanks to Ronald D Davis a dyslexia sufferer and developer of the Davis Orientation Counseling Processes and Symbol Mastery Technique.

I was amazed when I learned that dyslexia is a mental function developed by a person as a way of observing the world.

This mental function is a natural ability or talent. People with dyslexia do not all develop the same talents but they have certain functions in common.

• Their thoughts become the reality of the individual not the reality we all share. This is called creating perceptions.

• They are environmentally aware

• They are curious

• They think mainly in pictures instead of words

• They tend to be highly intuitive and perceptive

• They think and perceive using all their senses

• They experience thought as reality

• They have vivid imaginations

The abilities of dyslexics are often suppressed, ignored or destroyed by parents and the educational system because they are not the norm. If abilities are recognized and encouraged dyslexia can develop into higher than normal intelligence and extraordinary creative abilities.

Dyslexia, although it does have its downsides, can be an extraordinary gift.

The most common disabilities a person with dyslexia has to contend with are related to reading, writing spelling and / or maths.

Each case of dyslexia is different for dyslexia is a self created condition. It is the result of perceptive talent which began early in life. This perceptual talent is to do with the way the world is perceived and how thoughts are processed. It can become a liability because it use can become compulsive. The troublesome symptoms of dyslexia cause disorientation. These symptoms are not constant. They occur when the picture thinking of a dyslexic person becomes disturbed. The disorientation of dyslexia can create thousands of learning disability symptoms. The severity of those differences from person to person.

It seems that some people are born with a genetic code that enables them to use part of their brain that alters and creates perceptions. This makes the development of dyslexia possible not probable.

Dyslexia is a product of thought, not physiological abnormalities. It is a special way of reacting to a feeling of confusion that occurs when thoughts can not be pictured.

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Recover From Stuttering – Achieve Fluent Speech

Do you live in fear of your stutter? Do you desire to control your stutter rather than it controlling you? Are you motivated enough to change the way you speak and think? If you have decided that you want to recover from stuttering, it will be helpful to understand some of the steps involved in the Recovery Process:

  • Realize that your stuttering is illegally to magically disappear on its own.
  • Pay attention to how you physically use your tongue, lips, and voice box to produce sounds. A degree of tensing of these muscles is necessary to produce fluent speech. However, people who stutter often tense these muscles too much. When you pay attention to your speech structures, you can better understand how you interfere with their normal functioning during stuttering.
  • Pay attention to how it feels to make the sounds and words as you speak.
  • Realize that continuous airflow is an important factor in fluent speech.
  • Practice your new fluency technique whenever you speak.
  • Acknowledge, in an open and matter-of-fact manner, that you stutter. You could say, “By the way, I'm a recovering stutterer and I'm going to use this opportunity to practice my new speech technique.” Disclosure is a proactive strategy. Expose your technique and embrace the support that people give you.
  • Realize that it will take some perseverance and determination to control your speech. However, the recovery process actually requires less effort than struggling to hide or fight your stutter.
  • Access support from other recovering stutterers.
  • Consciously direct your thoughts so new positive thought patterns can be developed.

Achieving fluent speech can improve many aspects of your life. The stuttering recovery process is a life-changing experience. Join me on a quest to recover from stuttering.

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Recover From Stuttering – Don’t Let Carry-Over Fluency Fool You

Many people with a stutter / stammer who undertake intensive therapy courses to manage their dysfluency have wonderful initial success. Their fluency, immediately after one or two weeks of intensive therapy, is quite often very good. Many of these people are experiencing what we recovering stutterers call, 'Carry-Over Fluency'. Carry-over fluency is a TRAP.

This carry-over fluency, or control over your stutter following therapy, will usually disappear without concurring effort is applied to maintaining good fluency technique as learnt during intensive therapy.

Periods of intensive stuttering / stammering therapy, where the mind is put through a concentrated retraining process, leads to the finding of clearer, although rudimentary, neural pathways in the brain. We all have neural pathways in our brain that control our speech, however in relation to stutterers, our neural pathways tend to be cluttered with other negative neurological / psychological stresses which tend to get in the way of us achieving fluent speech. When speech rates are slowed down and breathing is controlled, most fluency retraining techniques establish a solid rhythmic phrase pause, phrase pause relationship.

This slowed rhythmical speech / breath relationship, if it is practiced consistently, leads to wonderful control over fluency and often sees the disappearance of our stuttering behavior. This occurs because new neural pathways have been established in their rudimentary form. That is, the new pathways are there, but at this early stage are still fragile and exposed to pre-existing negative perceptions that still exist in the stutterer's mind. By continuing to use excellent technique learned in therapy, the stutterer can circumvent negative psychological thoughts and perceptions. This of course takes time, consistency is the key. All good stuttering therapy programs should also include solid retraining in cognitive areas.

The more we maintain fluency and the more excellent practice we use, the more fluent we are. You will want to stay that way! The longer we stay fluent, the more empowered we become. Positive things start to happen to us, including:

  • Improved self-concept
  • Improved self-confidence
  • Speech formulation improvements
  • True personality shines through
  • Negativity disappears to a large extent
  • We listen more carefully
  • We enjoy conversation

All these things happen, and more, simply by employing good fluency technique at all times. Do not let the feeling of carry-over fluency trick you into thinking you are cured. We are not cured! There are challenges ahead, but rest assured, many people worldwide have undertaken stuttering therapy with great success. Whatever fluency shaping therapy you have undertaken, you are the one who is absolutely in control.

You take control over your own recovery, do what you have to do, be boss over your mind and kick that old stuttering habit. Join me on that road to fluency.

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The Purpose of a Dyslexia Screening Test – A Simple Explanation

There are two types of tests involved when you are dealing with dyslexia. A screening test and a comprehensive test. The primary purpose of the screening test is to determine if the more comprehensive test is needed. Here are some reasons why this is important.

A dyslexia screening test is a fairly simple test which does not need to determine if a person has dyslexia. It is used to determine if a person has some sort of learning disability whether it is ADD, ADHD, dyslexia or even autism. It is just as often used to screen people out of a learning disabled group as it is to screen them for a disorder. This is important so that valuable resources can be put to use where they are most needed and where they will do the most good.

Even the screening test process can consist of several stages. In it's simplest form, the screening test is just a list of items that a learning disabled person may exhibit. If several of these are found to be true about the test subject, then that may be an indication that further testing is warranted. From there, a consultation with an educator or psychiatrist who specializes in dyslexia might be the next step. They may want to see the child in person, or conduct a different type of screening test, such as a computer game, if a child is involved. They will also want to ask many more questions both of the subject, if it's an adult or teen, and the subject's, parents and teachers, if it is a child.

Another big reason for the screening is to avoid the more comprehensive test whenever possible. The comprehensive test is much more difficult, time consuming, expensive and laborious for the person being tested. It can often take several testing sessions. In some versions the comprehensive tests consists of as many as twelve separate tests. If you were to try to start with the comprehensive test and find out the person does not have dyslexia, it would be a tremendous waste of time and money and would create unnecessary stress for the person being tested.

So, the dyslexia screening test is a process in and of itself. It is an important first step and a valuable tool in determining if a person has dyslexia and if further testing is needed. It can prevent a lot of frustration and lost time in creating a learning plan for someone who has the disability. People who suspect they may have dyslexia or are trying to help someone who may have dyslexia should consider this test as their first option.

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Stuttering Can Be Treated, Not Cured

In regard to stuttering / stammering treatment, I'm getting well and really fed up reading about sites on the internet offering quick fixes for people who stutter. “We can cure your stutter in a few minutes”, as well as other outlandish statements including claims claiming to turn a person's stutter into perfect fluency overnight. Other than making outrageous statements and promises, many snake-oil offers tell you essentially nothing of the treatment offered and give no details of what's behind these miraculous cures. From what I have seen and read, many underhanded individuals are claiming cures, while simply only offering downloadable tips and suggestions as to how people should be thinking and speaking.

The fact is, stuttering can not be cured, only managed. Happily, I must announce, many people have managed to turn around their dysfluency to the point where you would not even know that they had stutters. Having been involved in the Australian Speak Easy Association for 20 years, I have met and become friends with many people who stutter. Well over half these individuals are succeeding to control their dysfluencies to the point where their stuttering problem is no longer an issue in their lives. They have managed to improve their fluency income, but not by succumbing to one of the many outlandish money-making 'cure-your-stutter-overnight' offers. These people found themselves good science-based therapy treatment. With a good deal of self-motivation, discipline, help and support from many like-minded individuals, these people are currently managing their stutters and achieving excellent levels of fluency.

Any therapy program that does not include good cognitive treatment is not targeting the very important issues of anticipating negative causal thoughts and anxiety-driven social phobias that tend to go hand in hand with stuttering. People who are anxious about their stutter should be looking for a treatment program that offers solid science-based therapy coupled with strong emphasis on cognitive guidance and ongoing support systems.

As a recovering stutterer, I can say to you that it is definitely not gloom and doom. People can and do access excellent therapy and support, it is out there! Therapy programs are now available that you can actually undertake in the comfort of your own home. There is a reliable home-based program on the Internet that offers science-based therapy and onging support with speech coaches, a speech pathologist and psychologist.

So, join with me, ignore the quackery claiming stuttering cures, and let's follow that road to fluency.

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Language Development – Are Your Child’s Speech and Language Skills Developing Normally?

Do you ever wonder if your child's language abilities are developing normally? Are you concerned about a possible speech delay?

Here are a few things to ask yourself:

Is my baby vocalizing and babbling? Babies should be playing with their voices and experimenting with sounds. Babies from three to six months should be “cooing,” which is vocalizing mostly vowel sounds. Babies begin “babbling” at around six months. Typical babbling sounds are, “mamama,” “baba,” “dada,” “gagaga,” etc. It is said that babies under a year old play with all the possible sounds of every language and that after a year of age, the ability to produce and even to hear sounds that are not used in the native language is gradually lost. (Is not that cool?) Around a year of age, most babies are using “jargon,” sentence-like intonations. It may sound as if your child is jabbering away in another language! If a baby does not babble and vocalize, or if he stops vocalizing, this could be a sign of hearing loss.

Does my baby make eye contact? Does he try to imitate sounds or facial expressions? Is he learning turn taking? (He babbles, mom babbles back or says something, he babbles again.) Even passing a toy back and forth is a precursor of conversational skills. Children actually begin to learn these early conversational skills well before they are using actual language.

Does my baby or toddler communicate his needs? Even before babies are using actual language, they should communicate by vocalizing and pointing.

Does my toddler follow simple commands? By one year of age, babies should respond to “no” and their own names, and should give an object on request. By eighteen months, children should be able to point to one to three body parts and follow simple one-step commands.

Does my child have an age-specific vocabulary? Babies usually produce their first few words around one year of age. The average vocabulary of an eighteen-month-old is 50 words. By twenty-four months, a child's express vocabulary rates about 200 words. Children vary in their development, but if your child is more than six months behind these norms, there may be cause for concern.

Is my toddler putting words together into sentences? Toddlers typically begin using two-word phrases at about eighteen months. If a child is not doing this by age two, he may be considered delayed in language skills. The typical child is producing three to four-word sentences at twenty-four months.

If you have any concerns about your child's language development, please consult a speech pathologist. Children develop at different rates, and your child may be completely normal, but it is very important to catch potential problems early, since language disorders can affect socialization and future educational performance. Often, public schools will even provide free services for preschoolers.

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Studdering – Causes and Types

Stuttering, sometimes referred to as studdering, is a kind of speech disorder in which words, syllables, and sounds are either prolonged or repeated by the speaker. It disrupted the normal way of speaking and sometimes the involuntary repetitions are accompanied by uncontrollable bodily movements such as lip tremors or rapid blinking of the eyes. The symptoms of studdering vary every day depending on the individual. Activities such as answering the phone or talking in front of a large group may increase the studders while reading or speaking in unison with other people may reduce the repetitions.

Also known as stammering, the causes of this speech disorder remain unknown to professionals. There are two common types of stammering namely developmental and neurogenic. Developmental studding is the one accepted by children while they are still learning the basic language skills. It is the most common type of stammering and is believed by scientists to occur whenever the speech and language abilities of children are not fitted with the verbal demands of the child. This kind of stammering has also been believed to be hereditary.

Neurogenic studdering, on the other hand, is the type of stutter which occurs if an individual had some brain injuries caused by strokes or head traumas. Due to the damage of the brain which caused problems between its muscles and brain nerves, it is having trouble coordinating the many components needed in speaking. This speech disorder affects everyone no matter what their age is. In the United States, approximately 3 million Americans were diagnosed of stammering. As for children, roughly 5 percent are likely to stammer especially during their first few years. Boys are more prone to stammering compared to girls. Although most children lose this disorder as they grow, there is still a one percent of the adult population who keeps the habit.

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