Anxiety Disorders and Pathology

Given that one of the most important aspects of treating diseases and disorders is gaining access to accurate and specific information about the condition, both doctors and patients should be aware of what they need to know about the condition. For anxiety disorders, this is also very true, as having the right knowledge about anxiety disorders can greatly help in the treatment of the disorder. However, gaining knowledge on anxiety disorders does not only involve knowing the different types of anxiety disorders and their symptoms. Physicians and patients should be aware of the pathology of the disorder, which includes knowing the different causes of anxiety disorders. However, knowledge on the pathology of anxiety disorders does not only help in determining the type of treatment to be used. It can also help in preventing situations that trigger the problem.

Causes of Anxiety Disorders

There are a number of reasons that have been identified or suspected to cause anxiety disorders. One of these is the theory that anxiety disorders are caused by chemical imbalances. Another theory is that the genetic disposition of a person determines the likelihood that a person would develop an anxiety disorder when given the right trigger. On the other hand, there are also theories that say that anxiety disorders are learned behaviors and that unresolved issues from a person's past cause anxiety disorders. In addition to these, there is also a theory that says that not being able to properly manage symptoms of anxiety can cause the condition to become an anxiety disorder.

However, one of the most popular and accepted theories is that anxiety disorders are caused by a buildup of stress as a result of a series of stressful events in a person's life that has not been properly managed. In some cases, anxiety disorders or anxiety symptoms are caused by other medical conditions, including asthma, which can cause a person to suffer from a panic attack as a result of feeling breathless.

Gaining the right information on anxiety disorders does not only involve one being aware of the different types of anxiety disorders. This is because knowing the pathology of anxiety disorders, which includes knowing the causes of anxiety disorders, is also a very important aspect in determining the mode of treatment for the disorder.

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Dyslexia Testing

There is no single way of diagnosing Dyslexia. There are various kinds of tests which are used to diagnose it. Initially, tests are done to identify the presence of common symptoms, and more detailed tests are conducted to measure the symptoms. However, conducting the tests is very important if some primary symptoms are observed, as it is better to be diagnosed earlier in one's life. It is better to test and diagnose dyslexia at the age of six rather than at ten or twenty years of age. Dyslexia tests are conducted by an educational psychologist. Before consulting an educational psychologist for evaluation a medical doctor should be consulted so that physical illness is ruled out.

There are two types of tests for diagnosing dyslexia, screening tests, and comprehensive tests. A screening test is used on a large group of students to identify potential dyslexic children. A comprehensive test measures the symptoms and examines the roots of the cause of Dyslexia. Various statistical techniques are used to measure the symptoms, and it is very important for one to be aware of those measuring techniques so that they can understand the severity of the symptoms. Comprehensive tests are conducted for reading, spelling, and intelligence. Visual tests, reverse tests and sequencing tests are also part of comprehensive testing. Comprehensive testing can either be done by an educational psychologist in person, or by long distance. The test done by educational psychologists can be expensive, but it is the most effective way as the person is face to face with a psychologist. In Long distance tests the expert never gets to meet the Dyslexic person. Most of the long distance tests contain a situational questionnaire and objective questions which are to be answered and sent back. Then, the answers are evaluated, symptoms are measured, and a detailed report is sent back.

In the United States of America, as per Federal Law, a public school district is required to conduct tests for Dyslexia.

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Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Dyslexia

The term Dyslexia means difficulty with words. “Dys” means “difficulty” and “lexia” means “words.” In common terms the word Dyslexia means a disorder in psychological processes associated with reading, language processing, and learning. A person suffering from this disorder experiences difficult reading, writing, with letters, words, and numbers, as well as reversing letters and words. It is estimated that 10 to 15% of the children suffer from Dyslexia. Children with Dyslexia are confused with letters and numbers and often learn to think in pictures and images instead. There are three types of Dyslexia, Development dyslexia, Trauma dyslexia and Primary dyslexia. Development dyslexia is caused during the early stages of fetus development and is hormonal in nature. This Dyslexia decreases as a child grows up and is mostly found in boys rather than girls. Trauma Dyslexia occurs if the part of the brain that commands reading and writing abilities is injured. Primary Dyslexia does not change with age and is a malfunction in the left side of brain.

Causes of dyslexia are often hereditary in nature and are not caused by any emotional trauma. Children with Dyslexia face problems at school and this negative experience at school often causes behavior problems. The child gets frustrated due to lack of achievement and because they abstain from going to school. Dyslexic people may have some exceptional strengths. He / She may learn computers before others of similar age, and may be brighter in sports, and possess great creative abilities. Having Dyslexia does not mean that the person is dumb or mentally disturbed, they may be average or above average in intelligence. Dyslexic children are more curious than average. As an adult they may turn up being an architect, engineer, doctor, artist, or designer. With accurate diagnosis and specialized help Dyslexic people can lead a normal life and achieve great heights in their career.

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Adult Dyslexia

Adults with Dyslexia may hide reading problems, spell poorly, and avoid writing. These adults often have good creative skills, though. Many adults with Dyslexia are unemployed. They have difficulty in finding a proper job due to their accessibility. This makes them lose their self confidence. Adults with Dyslexia may be good at communicating with people without the difficulties that they faced during their childhood affected their self esteem.

Misconceptions about Dyslexia makes a Dyslexic person feel inadequate, isolated, rejected, and have low self confidence. Adults with dyslexia may have difficulty in concentrating. They are often restless, have less memory, and seem confused at times. Some common symptoms among Dyslexic adults are that they may take a long time to read a book and understand it, skip reading few words or lines, avoid reading and writing, missing sequence, problem with note taking, and difficulty in time management. But some of them are also highly creative as they think in pictures. They can be very persistent, have vivid imagination, can see things in a different perspective than others, are more curious, and have more drive and ambition to prove themselves in the world. Some very dyslexic adults have psychic ability.

Research shows that Dyslexic person's brain functions differ from the normal one. fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) tests have been done on 19 adults with dyslexia and on 19 non dyslexic adults. The results shown that adults with dyslexia are less active in the part of brain that is involved with reading. If Dyslexia is diagnosed at an early age, it can be treated. However, it can not be cured as it is a neurological problem. No two Dyslexic have the same symptoms.

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Dyslexia Symptoms

A common indication of a dyslexic child is that their achievements are disproportionate with their ability, meaning that a child appears to be average or intelligent when they talk but they have difficulty in spelling, and struggle to read and understand.

Dyslexia symptoms may vary depending on the age group the child belong to. Children in pre-school often have problems telling stories in proper sequence, and also have difficulty learning numbers, alphabets, colors and shapes. They may have problems communicating with peers. Children in grades 1 through 4 tend to make mistakes and spell in reverse (“but” for “tub”). They even get confused with mathematical signs (+, -, =, etc.), hold pencils awkwardly, learn new skills slowly, and memorize without really understanding. Children in grades 5 through 8 usually read below their grade level, have poor handwriting, and avoid reading and writing. Some dyslexic children have difficulty recall facts and making friends.

One of the most common symptoms of dyslexia is the reversal of letters and numbers

Dyslexic people tend to confuse letters and numbers – for example b and d or 15 and 51 – while reading or writing. They even sometimes read or write in reverse fashion like “pat” for “tap” or “bat” for “tab”, or 21 for 12. They read very slowly and hesitantly and may repeat lines twice or skip reading a few lines. In general a dyslexic child may attend school regularly, may be average or even bright, and accomplished in creative activities, while also having difficulty in reading, writing or coping with mathematics. Dyslexic people often spell words as they are pronounced. For example please is spelled “fleeze” and knew is spelled “new.”

Some of the other common symptoms of dyslexia are problems tying shoelaces, stuttering, and difficulty remembering months and week days in sequence. Ohter signs include getting confused with directions, mispronouncing words, being unable to follow 2-3 instructions at a time, and having difficulty with organization.

The symptoms may not be identical in various cases and signs described above may not be a complete list of symptoms. If one believes that a particular person may be dyslexic, he or she may seek professional advice and conduct tests for the condition.

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Some Common Signs Of Dyslexia

While dyslexia is commonly associated with learning difficulties it can deal with much more than just having trouble reading and writing. Dyslexia usually becomes noticed when your child starts school and they start learning to read and write, but there are some other factors / symptoms you can be on the look out for if you're worried that either you or your child might be dyslexic.

Dyslexia is genetic so if you or your parents are dyslexic chances are your children might be too and while it will always be a part of your (or their) life if diagnosed can be easily remedied with correct teaching methods, support from teachers and family and some adjustment in their learning methods.

Unfortunately there is still the common misconception that people who are dyslexic have a below average intelligence, this is far from the truth; as many have an average if not higher intelligence level, often it's just a matter of the child or adult learning a new way of understanding what might be a common problem for others.

There is no one dominating factor to determine if you or your child is dyslexic, some show some certain tendencies while others suffer other problems. While the list below is in no way a complete guide, if you're worried about you or your child might be dyslexic it will show some characteristics to be on the look out for. If you recognize some of these signs in either yourself or your children it is important that you arrange for professional testing as there are many different problems and treatments associated with dyslexia.

Some common signs of Dyslexia

Spelling phonetically.

Transposing of letters or numbers or letter / number reversal (d for b or 6 for 9).

Often leave out or add in words when reading.

Have trouble determining left and right.

When your child is dressing they may regularly put clothes on backwards or inside out.

Have trouble with sequences.

Often are clumsy or uncoordinated.

May have a short term memory problem but an above average long term memory.

Often are very good at hands on jobs or school work.

Tend to have trouble staying on task (easily distracted) and managing time or have difficulty organizing things.

Handwriting can often seem rushed.

These are just a few of the more common symptoms, though they are not always indicative of dyslexia.

If you discover that you (or your child) are dyslexic always remember there is plenty of help available. Speak to a trained professional who may offer many different techniques, from colored glasses to alternative approaches to learning, to help enhance any learning difficulties you may have. Even as an adult it's never too late to start.

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Difficulties and Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a language-based disorder that is characterized by difficulty with decoding single words. This difficulty is normally a reflection of the individuals inability to properly phonological process words. It is important to note that dyslexia has nothing to do with any sort of visual impairment, and that they can severely hamper an individual's ability to read.

Dyslexia includes the ability to:

– Name letters

– Read words and / or sentences

– Recognize words directly (even if the individual can sound them out)

The different forms of dyslexia are most likely directly related to the different brain regions that are affect; most theories focus on the non-primary area that are located in the frontal lobe and temporal lobe of the brain. Dyslexia symptoms [] vary greatly on the area of ​​the brain that is affected but any symptoms that lead to complications with the above listed inabilities are to be taken seriously. Originally Dyslexia was defined as “a difficulty with reading and writing that could not be explained by general intelligence”. One general way to test for dyslexia is to compare the reading and writing abilities of an individual in relation to their general intelligence and then taking that data and comparing it with a general population.

For a last quick note, there is a growing list of notable people who have been diagnosed with dyslexia. To name a few: Orlando Bloom (actor), Tom Cruise (actor), Walt Disney (producer), Albert Einstein (scientist), and even the gorgeous actresses Salma Hayek. Take a look at what these individuals have accomplished and do not let dyslexia hold you down!

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Do You Recognize the Early Dyslexia Symptoms?

Many times as parents we do not begin to see early dyslexia symptoms that our children have been displaying. My child was diagnosed at the age of six. This was when I began studying more about dyslexia. The more I read and researched the more I realized that the clues began at an early age. Although six is ​​still considered early for diagnosis, I could not help but to feel a little guilty at my ignorance.

Here are some of the signs I missed:

* Difficulty Retrieving Words – my child would often say “have you seen my blue thing?” To which I would always have to reply. “What thing?” What I did not understand or know to pick up on was that my child was demonstrating the difficulty that some dyslexics have with word retrieval. Instead of having to come up with the word he would use generic words such as “thing” or “stuff”. He would also have a tendency to describe an item in detail, without having to recall a specific word. For example, if he could not come up with the word car. He would describe it as “the thing with wheels, that we get into, and we go.”

* Difficulty Rhyming Words – around the age of three many of my sons friends would happily play around the playground, singing out rhyming words. Sometimes they were real words, and sometimes they were nonsense words, but they still rhymed nonetheless. Although my son would say a few words here and there he did not show the delight that the other children had in creating these rhymes. Because the part of dyslexia can include difficulty isolating the sounds of words, it is often hard for these children to isolate early sound in order to change it to make the rhyming word.

* Directional Words – directional words may include right, left, up, down, before, after, yesterday, or today. I can remember at the age of three, my son would tell me things that he did. The sentence would sound something like, “I went swimming tomorrow and had a lot of fun.” I thought this was cute and comment for a three year old. However, it was yet another red flag that I messed.

* Sees Every Word for the First Time – as my son entered and progressed through kindergarten, it is no surprise that reading became a frustrating event in our house. Very often, my son would come to a word in a book that he needed to sound out. He could do this successfully, then turn the page and would run into the same word. However, instead of recognizing the word he just read, it was as if he had never seen the work before. This is an extremely common trait among children with dyslexia.

* Sight Words – “Sight words” are very important in today's curriculum. Sight words are small words that are often used in the written language. For example, be, what, are, with, etc. The idea is that reading will be much more fluent if a student can glance at these words, and know them by sight, rather than having to sound it out. These can be extremely difficult for the dyslexic student. Nightly homework in kindergarten involved training, how fast my son could read a list of 30 words. The goal is 30 words in 30 seconds. My son tended to average around a minute and 30 seconds.

Every child at some point may display one or more of these signs. It does not mean they are all dyslexic. However, if I had known what to look for, each of these signs should have been setting off a bell in my head along the way. In hindsight, by the end of kindergarten, I should have had enough evidence to have my child tested. I allowed myself to fall into the “give it a little more time” excuse. If you suspect a child has dyslexia or any other type of learning disability, you should take action immediately.

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Kerry – Surprising Unintelligible Utterances and Inflections Conveyed Meaning

Kerry was character. Coming from a third world country, he had never gone to school, nor had he had any intervention until he was seven years old. Although he was seemingly nonverbal, he was quite the wild melodramatic guy, often emitting using over the top gestures to make his feelings known. It appeared he learned some of it from watching TV. It was Kerry's second year in school, when he was assigned to my bedroom. Even though he had been in our school for over a year, no one was aware that he had any verbal communication.

His mom told me that he liked to watch “Night Line” so I decided to stay up and watch it. That night Ted Koppel was interviewing Jennifer Flowers about her affair with Governor Clinton. The next day, I asked Kerry if he had watched the show. To my utter shock, his interest peaked and he said “da” which I soon learned mean, “yes”. From then on Kerry answered my questions using a few letter sounds with accented syllables. I do not remember how I asked what the host was, but whatever I said, Kerry understood and responded. “De dod l”. (Ted Koppel) Stunned, I went on to ask what they were talking about and he said. “Da de de Din don”. (Governor Clinton) I asked him if Governor Clinton had a girlfriend. Kerry said. “Da” (yes) I then asked him if he knew what a girlfriend was and he said, “de” (no) Next I asked him if Governor Clinton had a wife? He said “da”. (Yes) I went on to ask Kerry what Governor Clinton's wife's name was. He said. “De de de Din don”. (Hillary Clinton) I asked him if he knew what the word wife meant. Kerry said “de” (no) Finally I asked him what Governor Clinton wanted to become? Kerry said, “de di den”. (President) Again I asked Kerry if he knew what that meant and he said, “de”. (No)

I was thrilled to realize that Kerry could communicate and that I could converse with him if we were both privy to the same information; otherwise, there was no way he could be understood. It was the inflections of the “da” and “de” that wave his communication attempts clarity. It was obvious that he had a phenomenal memory and could parrot back information, but I was not sure of what to make of his seeming lack of comprehension. For example, he showed me pictures of some famous bridges in a magazine. He was naming them “do de dade did” (Golden Gate Bridge), Da did (Bay Bridge), de den did (Brooklyn Bridge), but he did not seem to comprehend that they were all bridges, or the concept of a bridge . he could name them, but he did not appear to be forming categories. He could repeat word for word things he had heard on TV. Yet, if I gave him a simple verbal directive, for example to walk over to the window, he was lost.

One day, we were working on a deck of anton cards cards that showed the picture on one side and the word on the other. I was impressed that he remembered them all so quickly even the obscure ones. However, I also noticed his quick, barely perceptible glance at the word on the back of the card as he handed them to me. I picked up a black magic marker and blacked out all the words. Without the words on the back, he could not select any of the correct answers-the pictures alone mean nothing.

Kerry could not write on his own. I used facilitated printing with him. I would hold the chalk and he would move my hand to print. His favorite activity was baseball so when it was his turn to choose an activity, he would take my hand and print “baseball” on the chalkboard in large letters. One day, I looked on my calendar and the word “baseball” was printed on it. At this point in development, Kerry could not print without physical support. None of my assistants advised to do it, and the printing was not similar to any of the other kids. It resembled a smaller version of the printing that appeared when he moved my hand on the board. I was confused. I ran into Kerry at summer school a year or two later. He could now print on his own so I asked him to print the word baseball. Sure enough, it was Kerry, who had independently printed the word 'baseball' on my calendar that day, long before he demonstrated that capability.

Lessons I learned from Kerry:

oLook for word approximations. (Kerry's sounded like Morse code with appropriate inflections)

oJust because a child can respond to simple questions about material, does not mean that he understands what the words mean or underlying concepts.

oUse what is most stimulating. Learning to print the word “baseball” on my calendar, so we would go out and play was certainly more stimulating than learning to write his name.

oSome students can not follow a simple direct if it evolves movement. It appears as if one channel closes down to allow the other to activate.

  • Some students know more that you think they do.
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    Assisted Technologies for Phonological Dyslexia

    The development of computer related technologies to assist readers who have fluency or decoding problems is certainly a recent development. However, in the last several years, the technology and sophistication of some of the software programs designed to assist individuals with reading difficulties have been truly revolutionary.

    The Kurzweil 3000 reading program ( is a software package that enables readers to scan in text from any book they are reading, and then reads the text aloud in a modulated voice. In addition, the text is highlighted, and definitions and synonyms of any word in the text is offered. In addition, the program has functions that include syllabification, spelling of various words, as well as reading text at different rates of speed. Study skills include virtual sticky notes, different colored marks that allow students to highlight salient information, and the ability to extract this data in a separate document. The Kurzweil program also has some powerful writing enhancement strategies including a word predictor function and editing tools that sharpen and develop writing skills. Lastly, the Kurzweil program allows for the downloading of thousands of audio books and the aural reading of text contained in many websites.

    The Lexia Reading Program is another software package that is specialized to work in a compatible manner with many phonologically based tutoring programs designed to assist readers increase the accuracy of their decoding, and the fluency of their reading skills. Lexia is a graduated program that works with readers to increase phonemic awareness through syllabification, tasks utilizing elision, reading of non-sense words or phonologs, as well as rhyming and other pronunciation tasks.

    Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic, which is a website where recorded books on CD can be borrowed, is a very valuable resource as well, as it provides a large lending library for those students who might benefit from listening to books. This resource should never replace the development of reading skills, but can be an invaluable tool in increasing reading comprehension and improving academic performance. More information on this website can be obtained at

    The development of computer related technologies to assist readers who have fluency or decoding problems is certainly a recent development. However, in the last several years, the technology and sophistication of some of the software programs designed to assist individuals with reading difficulties have been truly revolutionary.

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    Jimmy Looked at My Hand to Talk

    I was fascinated with Jimmy, an exotic looking boy with dark eyes and straight jet black hair. Like many others with autism, he liked routine; change often lead to tantrums. At the same time, I recognized carefully orchestrated disruptions of his expected routines provided a stimulus for Jimmy to initiate communication. To use this intervention effectively, his mood and current coping ability needed to be continuously monitored. Jimmy needed to know that he could trust me to be alert to his current coping ability and to provide a safety net as I attempted to push him to the next level. It was best to alert Jimmy prior to an activity if there would be a change and what that change might entail. Degree of difficulty was dependent on what I felt he was able to handle at that particular moment in time.

    For example, when I first met Jimmy, he refused to brush his teeth. I began by explaining all he had to do was put the toothpaste on the brush. When that was no longer a threat, I had him touch the toothbrush to his front teeth. When he was comfortable with that, I had him move the toothbrush up and down on his teeth one or two times. Steadyly, I increased the amount and directionality. It took months before Jimmy was brushing his teeth appropriately, but taking it slow, and telling him what was expected in acceptable increments generated trust. This strategy relieved his anxiety in learning to tolerate an uncomfortable, but necessary sensory experience. Once the tooth brushing was not a problem any longer, I carefully disrupted the routine. For example, with appropriate communication pictures in view, I hid his toothbrush or toothpaste to encourage him to initiate a request. For him, the built in reward, was the completion of the routine. I used these same sequence interference techniques in other mastered routines to stimulate initiation of communication. Sign, gesture, verbal, or selection of communication pictures / words were all acceptable ..

    Jimmy had minimal functional language skills and needed visual cues-actual objects, sign language, and or pictures in a communication book. He was taught to make requests for desired food items or classroom supplies by pointing to communication pictures as he verbalized, “I want ______.” His speech was slow and labored and his intonation was flat. He could not initiate communication without a visual stimulus nor could he express himself beyond “I want ______.” Over time, Jimmy was able to learn rote responses to questions about personal data that I taught him. He began by reading the responses and then the words were promptly removed. After much repetition, he could recite his name, address, phone number, parents and sibling's name.

    I taught Jimmy to read by using an ESL (English as a Second Language) program, which used a series of word cards that could have matched to corresponding picture cards. Having the word and picture cards divided into categories and parts of speech, appeared to help him organize and access information. Jim demonstrated to me that he could match the words to the appropriate pictures and could answer questions about them. Soon, he seemed to have an intensive sight word vocabulary and He also began reading books at a primary level. Although I was aware that kids with autism have difficulty transfering skills to novel situations or people, I was unprepared for the strength of the discrepancy.

    I usually worked with Jimmy in a small group. I naively assumed that he could answer rote questions and read for others as he did me. One day, I asked Cathy, one of my assistants, to read with him. She told me that Jimmy could not or would not read for her. I walked over and he started to read out loud. When I stepped away, he became mute. I was confused. I asked another assistant to try. The result was the same. He either would not or could not read for either of them if I walked away.

    Curious about this anomaly, a few weeks later, this same astute assistant, along with a former teacher of Jim's, asked him about his personal data that she had heard him answeredly answer for me. For each of them, he just made the sound “je”. This was a consistent sound he made when he appeared not to be able to respond. Hearing the familiar “je”, I looked over at Jimmy from across the room and said, “What is your name?” He answered: “Jim Logan.” Next, Cathy asked him where he lived? Again he just responded “je”. From across the room, I then asked the same question. He looked at me and responded, “845 West End Avenue.”

    After a few more trials that presented the same results, Cathy instructed Jim to look at me as she asked the questions. “What is your mother's name?” Jim looked at me and responded “Jim Logan.” He continued to be able to respond to the rote questions she asked him only if he looked at me while he was answering them. Determined to get to the bottom of this, Cathy asked me to go into the hall and stand to the side of the door, where I was not visible. She taught Jim to look at the door and proceeded to ask him the same rote questions; he again was mute except for the sound “je”. She then told me to put my hand in the doorway with my face and the rest of my body out of sight. I did so with my palm facing Jim. Cathy taught Jim to look at my hand as she continued to ask him about his personal data. Once again, Jimmy cave the correct verbal responses. I was blown away!

    Lessons Jim taught me:

    o Develop trust. Make sure the child feels safe. Take nothing for granted.

    o Demonstrated competency of a skill for one person may not transfer to others. Make sure that once a skill is learned, that the child demonstrates it to a variety of people in diverse situations.

    o Certain people may serve as a catalyst for demonstration of language and academic competency. Just the appearance of my hand about eight feet away brave Jimmy the impetus to respond. Why? I can only speculate.

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    Sudden Loss of Speech and Learning the Value of the Spoken Word

    Do you have colds or allergies and lose your voice for short periods? Do you whisper anyway when your throat is red and sore? If you answered yes or no to any of these questions, read on.

    When my sister's speech vanished one morning I thought it was temporary. She tried whispering to speak to family members and friends. After a month her voice had not returned, she made an appointment to see an Ears, Nose and Throat doctor (ENT).

    The doctor in his office placed a small electronic scope device down her nose and examined her vocal cords. Her vocal cords looked good, but the muscles next to them had been damaged by whispering when her voice had disappeared.


    To make matters worse he said she had Gastro Esophageal Reflux
    Disease (GERD) which means she had an acid reflux from her stomach that actually spilled over into her throat and vocal cords. She is now on a restricted diet and must sleep with her head elevated.


    My sister is now meeting with a Speech Therapist to relearn how to use the correct muscles to make vibrations, soon to be sounds, and then hopefully – she will speak.


    My Speech Therapist suggested a new electronic device called Speech Generating Device (SGD).

    For whatever reason you have lost your voice this small computer will help you find yours. It can be programmed for your lifestyle. It has many words and phrases already programmed into the system.
    A voice choice is available. Man, woman or child. It is a great device and she fully intends to utilize this device for as long as she needs it. Medicare will pay part of the expense and as well as other medical insurance plans. She does not have this device yet but her Speech Therapist is now in the process of obtaining one for her.


    Do you have any idea how frustrating it is to not be able to communicate with anyone? Not her family or friends or necessary business calls, let alone an emergency. She absolutely can not use the telephone. She now communicates by writing out everything she wants to say or think but that does not mean the reader of her words says what she wanted to express. It is frustrating and extremely exhausting.

    Sometimes she feels invisible since she can not speak and get herself hear. Her opinion or thoughts do not count. Deep down she knows this is not true but she can not help how she feels.

    The doctor told her to journal all her thoughts and feelings. She now has been writing in a journal and also has been typing her thoughts on the computer.



    (1) Medication

    (2) Faith based groups.

    (3) Stopping to decide what really counts.

    (4) Most of the time accepting for whatever reason, you are where you are for a reason.


    (5) Biking

    (6) Walking

    (7) Swimming

    (8) Lifting Weights

    (9) Going to a Health Club.

    (10) Walking the dog.


    My sister is using the finger alphabet with close family members. She does not know sign language. She is taking the loss of her voice will only be for a short time. So far she is into her third month. It is helpful if you can connect with someone who can read lips.

    She is also seeing an acupuncturist three times a week. He has done miracles in decreasing the redness and swelling in her throat and loosing up her neck / throat muscles.


    She wants you all to be aware before you take medication – any medication you know the side effects of that medication.

    After the damage to her throat had been done she went to her Pharmacist and had her print out all the side effects of all the medication she was taking. They read all the material together.
    They decided the medication which had caused most of her symptoms was the medication she used once a month for osteoporosis. Further reading and researching revealed the extensive side effects. Even the GERD which affected her throat did not present symptoms (heartburn) until five months after she started using the Osteoporosis medication. The medication was already causing damage but she did not realize it.


    Her doctor explained these are actually drugs for Cancer, and they change bone density but not strength.

    When she alerted her Speech Therapist and all of her doctors about the findings, they were shocked. They immediately stopped the Osteoporosis mediation.


    Take Calcium supplements with Vitamin D and Magnesium and walking are the way to go to build bone loss.

    Thank you for reading my article. Please feel free to read any of my numerous other articles on various subjects.

    Copyright Linda E. Meckler 2007

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    Adult Dyslexia Testing – Why You Need to Get Adult Dyslexia Testing

    Dyslexia is now a recognized condition and people who suffered reading and learning disability can now put a name to it. If adult dyslexia testing was available years ago, proper treatment will be put in place to help sufferers cope with the disorder as early as possible and they can learn skills needed for them to realize their potential.

    In the past, people do not know about dyslexia. There are adults now with dyslexia who could have been taught how to cope with reading and learning disability when they were younger. But it is not too late to get help, undergo an adult dyslexia testing and get the necessary treatment to overcome the disabling effects of dyslexia.

    There are two type of adult dyslexia testing, one is screening tests and the other is comprehensive tests. Screening tests are usually done in a group of patients or students to determine if they have reading disability. Collecting preliminary information on the nature of reading problem and determine if a complete diagnostic is needed. Comprehensive dyslexia text on the other hand is a thorough evaluation of the severity of the symptoms and the causes of dyslexia.

    If you suspect that you have dyslexia it is important that you undergo a series of adult dyslexia testing to know the severity of your symptoms. Dyslexia is a genetic condition that needs to be tested for you to know the best way to treat and cope with your condition. Dyslexia if ignored may lead to the devastating effects of losing self confidence and low self-esteem. The disabling effects of dyslexia can be corrected and can be overcome if given the necessary treatment, so adult dyslexia testing is important.

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    Adult Dyslexia Signs and Symptoms – How to Know If You Are Suffering From Dyslexia

    Dyslexia is becoming an eye opener now because people are more aware of the condition they have and willing to subject them to adult dyslexia test and treatment. Years ago people will not believe about reading and learning disability and they just tag you as slow learner, lazy or simply not as intelligent as other kids without giving the proper treatment. But now with the awareness of this disorder, you and the people around you are more adept to deal with this disorder. Although there are most cases that dyslexia are diagnosed when they are already an adult. But now that dyslexia is openly identified as a serious condition, you should immediately seek professional help once you suspect that you are suffering from dyslexia signs and symptoms.

    There are many ways to know if you are suffering from dyslexia. As an adult, it is your responsibility to identify if you have dyslexia signs and symptoms through proper tests and evaluations. You should seek professional help to effectively get the necessary treatment. Here are some dyslexia signs and symptoms that would indicate you have dyslexia.

    Direction Confusion. One dyslexia signs and symptoms is difficulty recognizing directions. It comes in many forms like difficulty in recognizing left and right, up and down, following maps and compass and following instructions. Directional confusion is also the reason why dyslexics interchange letters like b and d, p and q, n and u etc. Dyslexics are confused not only in letters but in numbers too, you may read or write 16 to 61.

    Spelling Difficulties. Another dyslexia signs and symptoms is the difficulty to spell simple and troublesome words. You may find it difficult to spell even simple short words. Other words are spelled the way they are spoken like please to plese, knock to nock and search to serch.

    Math and sequences difficulties. Difficulties understanding math lessons and conceptualizing sequences is another dyslexia signs and symptoms you must observe. It is a big challenge for dyslexics to understand numbers in correct order or to reverse that order. You may find it hard to count to 100 forwards and backwards. Due to short term memory, dyslexics may also find it hard to understand mathematical operations like multiplications and divisions.

    Comprehension difficulties. Dyslexia is not only limited to written words but in some cases even in speech recognition. Another dyslexia signs and symptoms you must be aware of is comprehension difficulties. You may find it hard to retain what is said to you and may not be able to repeat the words said to you. It is also hard for you to follow instructions or follow 3 or more procedures that you need to do.

    Having these dyslexia signs and symptoms can be a serious condition but it is not that complicated if you immediately seek professional help and address the problem.

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    UCLA Adult Stem Cell Speech

    Hi, my name is Michael Webster. I am 62 years young! I was always big for my age, looked older than my age and hung out with older kids. Many people even thought I was older and therefore expected more of me. I was always healthy, strong and I thought invincible. I felt like I could jump tall buildings in a single bound and had always been athletic, played all sports and even boxed. Then suddenly I got done up in making a living, charged into that endeavor and did not do much else. For example I did not mow my own lawn anymore, or wax my car or even take walks, much less any athletic activities.

    Then years later, after much fast food and fast living, I wound up VERY OVERWEIGHT. During a routine physical exam, a diagnosis came back that I was a VERY ILL MAN. I regarded this as a serious wakeup call and started researching for natural answers.

    I stand 6 foot 3 and weighed 389 pounds. I knew I had to change my lifestyle by cutting out all fast food and overcoming those pesky temptations. I even had to cut out social drinking. I had to develop an exercise program and chose to walk at least an hour a day. But, I was determined to REGAIN MY HEALTH AND WELLNESS.

    I found a GREAT WEIGHT LOSS PROGRAM and lost 111 lbs in 52 days. Needless to say, THIS HELPED A LOT.

    But, although I was getting better on one level, I still had severe problems from damage that had already been made to my organs (specifically, my heart). Losing weight just was not enough to regain the health I had enjoyed as a younger man.

    I had already looked embryonic stem cells, and that was so far away. There were not any clinical trials going on that I could find. It looked like it was going to be two, five, maybe ten years away. With the controversy over embryonic stem cells raging, the future of any new discoveries coming in time to help me was pretty dim.

    Then, one day, I found information on adult stem cells. Many years ago it had been discovered that every adult already has stem cells in their system. The miracle of adult stem cells is that they can go to anywhere in your body and help support the growth of new healthy cells, where they are needed, like a little army of engineers each with a complete toolbox containing everything needed to do any job. I needed that badly.

    The problem is our bodies do not manufacture enough adult stem cells to repair severe damage. The cycle of life goes on every day in our bodies. As we go from birth to death, so do millions of cells go through the same process everyday. If the body does not get the nutrition to make healthy cells to replace those which die off every day, the body gets weaker and weaker, sicker and sicker, further and further out of balance. Occasionally, catastrophe strikes, as it did with me. Luckily, I lived through it, but just barely.

    So, when I came across this product that enhances the growth of adult stem cells, I was a little skeptical, but realized I did not have long to live without some drastic measures. The first day I took two capsules and I noticed I had a little more energy, and I felt a little better.

    I now take three capsules, four times a day and even though its only been a very short time, I can now do things I have not been able to do for years. I walk all over the place. I go to meetings where I often have to stand for long periods of time. I'm very, very active. I feel strong as an ox, people are telling me I look really good, I'm feeling really good, and it's just amazing! I've gone from having a hard time walking from my hospital bed to the bathroom to running (not walking!) Up and down stairs. That's what I call a miracle.

    This is the future, but it's here today, and for that, I am grateful.

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